Hitting Terms Every Coach Must Know

Do you Know Today's Most Commonly Used Hitting Terms?

If not, this article will be extremely helpful for you. It's important for moms, dads, coaches, and players to understand these terms. Knowledge is power, and knowing these terms and what they mean will help everyone learn faster and share hitting information better.

Exit Velocity

Exit Velocity: The speed the ball comes off the bat, this has nothing to do with the bat itself, just the ball once it’s hit. Another term that means the same thing as Exit Velocity is Ball Exit Speed.

Exit Velocity

Bat Speed

Bat Speed: this is the speed at which the bat is swung.  This has nothing to do with Exit Velocity of the ball as Bat Speed is only about the bat. Another term that means the same speed as Bat Speed is Swing Speed.

Bat Speed

Launch Angle

Launch Angle: The angle at which the ball leaves the bat once it is hit.  Every ball has a launch angle, grounders are negative angles to slightly positive angles (-90 degrees to about 6 degrees). Line Drives are about 7 degrees to about 24 degrees, and fly balls are higher than 25 degrees generally. Contrary to popular belief, there is no such thing as a ‘launch angle swing’. Another term that means the same thing as Launch Angle is Exit Angle.

Launch Angle

Attack Angle

Attack Angle: This is the angle from when the bat enters the hitting zone until contact with the ball. For example: if you swing down and chop at the ball, your attack angle will be a negative number (-15 degrees). If you swing flat and level to the ground it will be 0 degrees. And if you swing upward it will be a positive number, anywhere from 1 to about 25 degrees. Contrary to popular belief, Pop-ups are mostly caused by negative or flat attack angles. Alternatively, line drives and hard grounders are from positive attack angles. Another term that means the same thing as Attack Angle is Swing Plane Angle.

Attack Angle
Attack Angle Numbers

Pitch Plane

Pitch Plane: This the angle at which the pitch comes in. The best contact hitters have attack angles that are opposite of the pitch angle coming in. For example, if the pitch comes in on a -4 degree angle, the hitter would want at least a 4-degree attack angle. Home run hitters tend to have higher attack angles than the pitch plane. 

Pitch Plane

Area of Impact

Area of Impact: this is how long the bat is in the hitting zone and behind the ball. A perfectly matched attack angle to pitch plane has the longest area of impact, which is around 3.5 feet.

Area of Impact

Hip Hinge

Hip Hinge: this is bending at the waist towards home plate from your stance position. Another term that means the same thing as Hip Hinge is Pelvis Bend.

Hip Hinge

Side Bend

Side Bend: this is bending towards home plate at the contact position.  The body has rotated to this ball now so the hip hinge in the stance has transitioned to side bend. Other terms that mean the same thing as Side Bend are Pelvis Side Bend or Torso Bend or Inward Tilt.

Side Bend

Hip and Shoulder Separation

Hip and Shoulder Separation: this is the angle of the front of the pelvis compared to the angle to the shoulder girdle/collar bone of a hitter or thrower. Generally, the more different the angles of the chest and hips, (more open for hips and more closed for shoulders) the harder a player can swing a bat or throw a ball. Another term that means the same thing as Hip and Shoulder Separation is X-Factor Stretch.

Hip and Shoulder Separation
Hopefully, this article has cleared up some of the murkiness of the internet in regards to hitting terms.

At Softball Rebellion, we want people to feel included in our discussions instead of excluded by hard to understand terms. If there are others you think we should list and identify, please comment below.

Producing Results Through Movement Progression and Data

When Kylie of Orange High School, located in Hillsborough, NC, came in for an evaluation, Kylie and her parents had no idea what they were getting into. She’d played softball in Orange County for a few years and had just moved up to the Challengers team. Because of this increase in competition, she and her parents wanted to make sure she received quality instruction. Her evaluation took place on March 21, 2019. Within her first two lessons, Kylie's max exit velocity increased by 11 miles per hour and her max distance improved by an additional 40 feet. 

Evaluation Day: March 21, 2019

As always, no changes are made during an evaluation. I highlighted her swing against another high school player that was about her age and size. What Kylie and her parents noticed was a clear difference in aggression. Because of this, the demo swinger’s hits were going over 15-mph faster and up to 90-feet further. Kylie and her parents decided to enroll in the program and off they went.

Kylie Eval Swing

Kylie's First Day Back: First Lesson March 27, 2019

Kylie came back on March 27th and had her bag, bat, and gloves with her. I smiled and told her she wouldn’t need those, and got her mother a chair so she could watch. Then, we headed over to the Movement Wall, where all of our initial movement and Rebel's Rack work takes place.

After Fitting Kylie with her Rebel’s Rack, we began to learn to stride.

Initially Skeptical

Kylie was unsure of exactly what we were doing. Obviously, she was confused that we were not in a cage and using a bat. Because of this, I reassured her we were ‘learning to turn’ not ‘learning to hit’. She used the ‘LINE” and started to stride heel to heel.  After a while, we introduced a hesitated turn.

Initially SLOW

When Kylie started to try to turn, she was very slow when she turned. The ‘slowness’ of the turn caused her head to go forward and her turn to be incomplete. Eventually, she realized that when she went faster, she actually did the turn better! Much like trying to ride a bike slowly, the body struggles to pull the back foot forward when turning slowly. The speed of the turn is what allows the back foot to move forward while the head stays still. No speed means no chance for correct movements.

As you can see below, the turn on the left is one of Kylie's first initial rack turns. She shoots her head forward, moves very slow and drags her back foot on the ground. The turn on the right is only a few minutes later after a few verbal internal cues. She turns much more aggressively, keeps her head still and fires her back foot up and over the line.

Fast To The Finish, By The Finish

Finally, Kylie started to trust herself and me enough to go fast in her turn. When the back foot moves forward it pulls up and off the ground. Because of this, most athletes feel like they are ‘falling’ back when they initially learn the BR turn. The only way to complete the Rebel’s Rack Progression correctly is to go fast in the turn. Once she went fast, she was surprised at how balanced she felt. Because of that feeling of speed and balance combined, she went even faster.

Homework on Land, Homework at Sea:

At the end of the lesson, Kyle got her medium Rebel’s Rack and I told her to do 1000 turns before next week. Her mother said that it would be 2 weeks before I saw her again as they were going on a cruise (tough life!). Because of this, I upped her homework to 2000 turns. Kylie asked, “what if I can’t take the Rack on the boat?”.  I told her to “find a way you CAN get better instead of a reason you CAN’T”.

Second Lesson: First Time in the Cage: April 8, 2019

Kylie entered the training area with her dad while I was in a lesson. I told her to head over to the Movement Wall and start her Rack Progression. Upon finishing my lesson, I greeted her dad and headed over to talk with Kylie. Korey Reed, a BR Certified instructor from West Virginia, was shadowing me. I told Kylie to ‘show me her homework”. She did 2 turns, they were great, and we went over to the cage to hit.

When The Work Gets Done, The Hitting Gets Fun

I had Kylie do eight Rebel’s Rack Timing Turns and then I asked her if she was ready to turn. She said yes, so I told her to get her bat and prepare herself to turn as fast as she could. Her very first swing she hit the ball 57-mph. That’s 7-mph harder than her hardest hit at her evaluation. As you can see from the video, we changed nothing about her stance or hand position. So how did her velocity jump so much in literally one swing?

Rebel's Rack 2nd Lesson

Deliberate Practice and Verbal Cues

The Rebel’s Rack Progression is based on how people actually learn new tasks that are not hard-wired into healthy humans. Chunking up movements, combining them when ready, and then speeding them up. Constant reinforcement happens here, both with visual cues (given by a mirror) and verbal cues (given by a coach). Instead of the athlete guiding themselves, at the formative stages, the athlete must BE GUIDED. Remember coaches, there is a paying customer expecting that guidance, and we always respect that fact.

End of Lesson Comparison: Video and Hittrax Comparison

Traditional Practice Structure Widens the Competence Gap

What are the main skills associated with softball? Hitting for average, hitting for power, speed (baserunning) fielding, and throwing are five key skills needed to excel on the field. I’d imagine every coach and player works on some if not all of those skills during every practice. If every team and player work on the same skill set in the same manner, how does anyone expect to get ahead of their competition? More importantly, if you've never learned the aforementioned skills correctly, the traditional practice structure might hurt you as a player or your team as a coach. So, is your practice missing something? We at Softball Rebellion would say the answer is yes. And if that is the case, how can you fix the problem?

Traditional Practice Structure

Option 1: Train the Skills More

Most teams choose to train more in an attempt to gain an advantage over their opponents or earn more playing time. “More” can be defined as spending more time on specific skills or completing more repetitions. Sometimes, the player or team chooses both more time and more repetitions to gain an advantage.

Although practicing more seems helpful, many players end up hurt or tired if they're not physically prepared for longer practice periods. In hitting specifically, a tired athlete's mechanics can break down, creating sub-optimal compensations to ‘survive’ the practice instead of ‘thrive’ throughout the practice.

Practice Structure - What Matters
Are you training correctly?

Option 2: Train the Skills Differently

Traditional training, consisting of hitting off of tees, front toss or cage work, and on-field batting practice isn't enough to separate your team from the rest. These typical practice activities don't give you a leg up on the competition. So, coaches now create different practice variations to maximize training effects. For example, a coach may emphasize barrel awareness by tossing smaller balls. Other coaches use short and long bats to force hitters to barrel up the ball. The issue here is simple: the players are STILL JUST HITTING! Trying to improve hitting flaws by hitting more makes little to no sense when compared to teaching tactics utilized in school systems.

Elementary Teaching Structure


My son, Bryant, is 6 years old. Each night, he reads a book to either his mother or myself and sometimes, even to his little brother, Tyson. Typically, his books rely on similar letter combinations to help ingrain certain word patterns and sounds. A common sentence would be: “A dog and a frog are on a log.” Clearly, the book is trying to get Bryant to practice reading, understanding, and making the 'og' sound. As time goes on, the books get harder and pair different sounds together. “Ben has a hen and a dog and a frog”. In that sentence, the ‘en’ sounds were paired with ‘og’ sounds to help Bryant see and hear the difference. This is simple deliberate practice of an elementary skill set over and over.


Math is taught in a similar way. Currently, Bryant is working on adding and subtracting numbers. The class goes over how adding and subtracting works with M&M’s because the students understand physical differences as opposed to abstract numerical differences faster. Seeing 5 M&M’s become 3 M&M’s because you ate 2 is a simple way to work on subtraction. Understanding the number 5 minus 3 equals 2 on a paper is hard for some children at this age.


Deliberate Practice

The students also work on counting by 1’s, 2’s and 3’s. The students count to 9 by threes (3,6,9). They also count backward by 2’s from 10 to 0 (10,8,6,4,2,0). The teachers use these strategies to teach abstract math as opposed to physical math. Both are practiced deliberately, and both are repeated over and over again. He hasn’t been required to use a short pencil, then a long pencil, and then pencils with different lead hardness for writing proprioception. I think that’s in week 2!

Comparing Teaching and Coaching Tactics

In softball coaching, many times coaches assume a hitter can hit already. Meaning they have a basic mechanical understanding of how to actually hit a ball correctly with some power. What does this assumption of competence lead to? Assumptions lead to mass repetition based practices. Most people believe that “More time or more reps will make a player better." While this can work for some players, normally it creates a bigger gap between the good players and bad ones.

Eliminating the Competence Gap in School

Teaching Structure
  • Teachers complete motor skill assessments through various activities.
  • Assess student needs individually.
  • Teachers group students based on assessments then place them with others that they can help or who can help them.
  • This builds the same skills in all students without leaving any student behind.
  • Children with more advanced skills still benefit from additional work and further retain the information.
  • Students who struggled with certain activities benefit greatly.
  • All in all, the teaching system's early assessment and review close the competency gap.

Eliminating the Competence Gap in Softball

Softball Practice Structure (3)
  • Train the basics of rotation before you begin hitting.
  • This creates a solid foundation for each player.
  • Rotational movement training closes the competence gap and creates proper body movements and body awareness.
  • Teaching rotation as a skill unlocks a player's ability much faster than simply swinging.
  • If certain players are adept at rotating, release them to a hitting group while continuing rotational instruction with those who need it.
  • This groups players into situations where they can excel, just like teachers are doing for my young son.

Train Rotation. Bridge the Competence Gap.

Hitting is rotating the body, speeding up the bat around the body, and directing the bat into a ball. By assessing players' untrained ability to rotate, and then teaching better mechanical patterns for rotation, you ensure each hitting drill is maximally effective. Teaching the proper mechanics of rotation would take minutes of practice time but allow for hyper-effective and efficient hitting practice afterward. Instead of countless constraints, or drills from twitter, take the time to teach proper rotational technique. It’ll change your career or the career of those you teach in a massive way.

"The Softball Swing is completely different than a Baseball Swing." This is a statement that I had heard before but it had never been directed specifically towards me. Truthfully, I brought this discussion upon myself because I asked a Softball player (we'll call her Sarah for confidentiality) if she wanted any help with her swing, unsolicited. I normally refrain from doing this since players, understandably, dislike criticism they are not looking for. The reason I did ask was that Sarah's brother had been attending lessons for months and had seen dramatic improvement from being engaged in the Baseball Rebellion program. While I was teaching a lesson to Sarah's brother, she was hitting in the adjacent cage. The differences in the swings from the two cages could not have been more noticeable. To Sarah's credit, she was following her instructor's teaching perfectly, swinging as directly to the ball as possible (creating a downward swing path.) Sarah was also following traditional teaching with other parts of her swing by squishing the bug with her back foot and finishing forward with her head over her front foot. The results of Sarah's swings were either weak grounders or pop-ups with a ton of backspin. In contrast, Sarah's brother was in the next cage swinging violently and using his entire body to maximize his force behind the ball.

This was the first time I had encountered siblings whose hitting focus and goals were so different. In an attempt to build a case for the baseball and softball swing being extremely similar (if not identical), I decided to look at the evidence.

The "Rise" Ball and Swing Plane

By far the most common argument used to advocate for softball players swinging down is the rise ball. While it is true that Softball players do pitch underhand from flat ground, very few strikes actually rise. Gravity is a powerful force. I recently asked a D1 collegiate softball pitching coach about the rise ball. She replied saying:

"Even our fastest pitchers use the rise ball as a show pitch"

What she meant by this is that the rise ball does rise but crosses the plate out of the strike zone. The pitcher simply hopes that the pitch entices the hitter to swing and miss underneath it. When instructing hitters on hitting a true rise ball, we usually instruct them to take it since it is highly unlikely that it will be a strike. Many pitchers claim a rise ball but they are really throwing a pitch that flattens out towards the middle to the top of the strike zone. These pitches result in a high percentage of home runs since they are easy to lift and softball fields are only about 200 feet. Below are two examples of collegiate players hitting "rise balls" that were left lower than intended and therefore flattened out. Both of these hitters are clearly swinging up which allowed them to demolish the ball for a home run!

Dicarlo GIF 2
Alyssa DiCarlo (Georgia)
Abbey Cheek GIF
Abbey Cheek (Kentucky)

As a pitcher's velocity approaches 70 MPH (extremely fast), it is possible to throw rise balls for strikes that actually do rise. I studied Kelly Barnhill from Florida. She is an elite level pitcher. Let's take a look at a couple of her rise balls below.

Barnhill R2
Barnhill R1

As I mention in the video above, Barnhill's rise ball does travel upward at about a 3-degree incline and crosses at the top of the strike zone. Due to the height and trajectory of the pitch, hitters can easily lift this pitch. The goal of a pitcher like Barnhill is to get the hitter to swing and miss underneath the ball or pop it up. It is rare for ground balls to be hit on a true rise ball. So what do we tell our hitters to do on the rare occasion that they face an elite pitcher with a true rise ball like Kelly Barnhill? We stress the importance of pitch selection because most of their misses will come from swings out of the zone. We also teach our hitters to flatten out their swing when swinging at a rise ball in the zone. This way, our hitters minimize their chances of missing under the pitch while maximizing their chances to drive the ball for an extra-base hit. This concept is something that we only have to address with our players who truly play at an elite level since the chances of most hitters facing a true rise thrown as a strike is extremely low.

Offspeed Pitches and Fastballs Under 65 MPH

There is no argument that slower fastballs and offspeed pitches travel down as they approach the batter due to gravity. So even if you are stuck on the idea of hitting the rise ball, hitters have to account for these other types of pitches. The best and most logical strategy on all downward traveling pitches is to swing upward to match the plane of the pitch and produce force that is likely to lead to the softball being lifted over the infield and potentially over the outfield fence. Below is an example of a softball pitch traveling down and being crushed by an upward swing.

Mulipola HR
Dejah Mulipola (Arizona)

Mound Distance and Leg Kicks

In our softball hitting evaluations, I often see hitters who have clearly been taught to keep their feet still/get their foot down very early. The primary rationale for this teaching in the softball community is that the softball pitching rubber (43 feet) is closer than the baseball mound (60 feet). While this is true, due to the softball pitch speed being slower than the baseball pitch speed, the reaction time for baseball and softball hitters are very similar. Just like in baseball, softball hitters find great success when they start early (before the pitch is released) and time the pitch with their turn rather than their front foot.

New Hugo GIF
Alex Hugo (Georgia)

As you can see, Alex Hugo begins her leg kick well before the pitcher releases the ball. This allows her time to get her body and energy moving without feeling rushed. While no softball or baseball hitter has to use a leg kick, it is certainly a viable option.

On Field Success

All the logic and theory in the world can sound great but it will be useless without practical application with real-world examples. We have had the privilege of working with hundreds of Softball players who have fully bought into using the Softball Rebellion methodology in their swings. This has resulted in millions of dollars in scholarships for our hitters due to their great on-field results. Below are just a few videos of our softball players utilizing what some may call a "baseball" style swing in games. We just call it swinging efficiently. The results are clear. If you are a softball player looking to take your swing to the next level, check out our in-person or online hitting lessons page here.

Hannah M FINAL
Hannah M.
Peyton Y.
Zoe R.
takia final
Takia N.

To all of our softball hitters (and parents) out there, don't be afraid to learn the high-level swings you see on TV! You are more than capable of swinging at a high-level and CRUSHING THE BALL!

Unlocking Your True Potential at Softball Rebellion

The softball community at all levels has been very welcoming and open to the movement ideas here at Softball Rebellion. Because of this, many schools are adopting the Rebel’s Rack movement progression.  This movement work allows coaches and instructors to unlock the hidden potential inside of their athletes while adding the ability to hit for power. On March 22nd, 2016 Tomika and Takia Nichols walked into Softball Rebellion. Here is Takia’s unedited evaluation video. Softball Rebellion HQ had zero Hittrax at this point, so we used a Stalker Sport 2 radar gun to collect her exit velocity data.

Takia's Evaluation Video, Taken on March 22, 2016

Tomika's Interview

For this article, Tomika, Takia's mother, was gracious enough to answer some questions about her and her daughter's experience here at Softball Rebellion HQ.  Our questions and her answers are as below.

Question 1

How did you hear about Softball Rebellion and what made you want to come for lessons?

“One of the parents from Takia’s travel ball team and I were talking.  I was telling him how we had tried several different hitting instructors.  At the time, I was driving from Hillsborough to Raleigh and she was not showing any improvement.  He told me about a place in Hillsborough, Softball Rebellion, that provided hitting training. It was close to home, so I thought I would give it a try.  I scheduled her first evaluation and the suggestions that were given seemed to click. So, we scheduled our first lesson and the rest is history.”

Question 2

What would you say the biggest difference in your daughter is since she starting training here at Baseball Rebellion?

The biggest difference is now she is hitting for power. If it’s not over the fence it’s hard line drives. The speed of the ball coming off her bat, for the most part, is unstoppable.”

Question 3

What do you think the biggest misconception about Softball Rebellion and the training here at Baseball Rebellion is?

The biggest misconception from my point of view is the methodology. In the beginning, she was asked why does she swing like that. People have seen her videos in the cage and ask and can she hit like that in a game. And the answer is, yes. For me the numbers on the Hittrax are fine but what keeps me coming back is her performance on the field. When I saw my daughter who was then 12-13 years old hit the ball to the parking lot, I was amazed. Then I watched girls move out of the way of a ball that is moving so fast they  don’t even attempt to catch it, I was sold. She is still working hard to improve but when she is focused she can be unstoppable.”

Question 4

Finally, Can you describe the way you and your daughter have been treated at Softball Rebellion and the learning environment here at SRHQ?

The environment at Softball Rebellion is honestly like no other facility that we have been to. It’s a very friendly environment. We are actually treated like family. She has trained with everyone there and each trainer genuinely cares about the individual.  This personal interest extends past the cage and on the field to school and life in general. I recommend Baseball Rebellion and Softball Rebellion to everyone! You cannot go wrong if you are willing to put in the work and trust the process.

83.2 mph at a 30 Launch Angle Produces 308 Feet, WOW!

Hittrax Spray Chart from 308 Session


Takia's Most Recent Video

Final Thoughts on Takia

Clearly, I have a lot of respect and admiration for Takia and her mother.  The sacrifice both have put into getting Takia here consistently has been tremendous.  Takia's work ethic is exemplary.  Her focus and drive to be great are also as high as we have here at SRHQ.  Because of this, she has turned herself into a sure-fire Power 5 recruit.  That being said, I wouldn't call her drive 'different' here.  Many players exhibit the same drive, work ethic and similar gains to what Takia has earned.  In the coming months, I will highlight more and more players as they do more and more incredible things.